To BioMag home page

Some history

The following list is highly subjective in that local events are emphasized. Feel free to suggest relevant additions or links.

BioMag history


Aug 13-17 12th International Conference on Biomagnetism, Biomag2000, Espoo/Helsinki, Finland


Sept 25 Science prize of the Academy of Finland, worth FIM 300.000 awarded to Prof. Risto Näätänen (First recipient of this newly established award)
Sept 25 Invention prize for the idea of combining TMS and HR-EEG
June 17 Dissertation of Mari Tervaniemi (Opponent: Robert Zatorre)
April 14 Innovation Prize 1997 to magnetic stimulator project
February 7 Dissertation of Minna Huotilainen (Opponent: Olivier Bertrand)
January 30 First Nature paper from BioMag collaboration: Näätänen et al.


November 6 Dissertation of Teija Kujala (Opponent: Helen Neville)
November First exercize MCG measurement
October First study using EEG to record brain activity elicited by magnetic stimulation
May Demonstration that fMRI and MEG activations coincide in the somatosensory cortex
April Replacement of one gradiometer pair in the cardiomagnetometer by a single axial channel, resulting in a 67-channel sensor array
April 9 First combined 122-channel MEG and 64-channel EEG measurement
March 64-channel EEG cap (Virtanen et al.)


Nov25 Dissertation of Eero Pekkonen (includes one study performed at BioMag)
Oct 10 New office space received in Building F
Sep 11 First publication based entirely on recordings at BioMag
April 12 Neuromag 68-channel MCG system complete
April 2 First combined 122-channel MEG and 32-channel EEG measurement
Mar 21 Opening ceremony of the BioMag Laboratory
Jan 1 Graduate School on Functional Imaging in Medicine started


Dec 30 Neuromag 122-channel MEG system complete
Dec 22 First measurement at the BioMag Laboratory (Patient with Alzheimer's disease)
Feb 11 Contract with Neuromag Ltd. signed
Contract with Euroshield Ltd. signed

Biomagnetism history

Magnetometers (Helsinki-oriented)

1996 Neuromag announces their 306-channel neuromagnetometer
1992 122-channel magnetometer: first whole-scalp array ( Neuromag Ltd.)
1989 24-channel magnetometer (Kajola et al., 1989)
1986 7-channel magnetometer (Knuutila et al., 1987)
1984 5-channel magnetometer (Williamson et al., 1985)
1983 4-channel magnetometer (Ilmoniemi et al. 1984)
1981 7-channel experimental magnetometer (Ehnholm, Ilmoniemi and Wiik, 1981)
1969 First successful MCG measurement without averaging, using a SQUID (Zimmerman, Cohen, Edelsack) [James Zimmerman in Advances of Biomagnetism, p. 70]
1968 First magnetoencephalogram (David Cohen)
1963 First magnetocardiogram (Baule and McFee)


1996 MEG detection of cerebellar activity (Jousmäki et al., Tesche et al., 1996)
1995 MEG detection of subcortical activity (Tesche, Karhu and Tissari, 1996)
Signals from the second somatosensory cortex (Hari et al.; Teszner et al.)
Pain-related cortical signals (Hari et al., 1983)
1982 Localization of epileptic foci
Muscle-movement-related magnetic fields (Deecke et al., 1982; Hari et al. 1982, 1983)
1980 Source identification of auditory evoked fields (Hari et al.; Elberling et al.)
1978 Somatosensory evoked field (Brenner et al.)
Auditory evoked field (Reite et al.)
1975 The visually evoked magnetic field (Brenner et al.)
1968 First magnetoencephalogram (David Cohen)

MCG (incomplete)

1974 Fetal MCG (Kariniemi et al.)
1969 First successful MCG measurement without averaging, using a SQUID (Zimmerman, Cohen, Edelsack) [James Zimmerman in Advances of Biomagnetism, p. 70]
1963 First magnetocardiogram (Baule and McFee)

Other biomagnetic fields (incomplete)

1979 Magnetoretinogram (Aittoniemi et al.)
1976 Magnetooculogram (Karp et al.)

History of background developments (incomplete)

1962 Brian Josephson, as graduate student, discoveres the Josephson effect. For this discovery, he was awarded the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physics.
1957 Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer develop the BCS theory for superconductivity. This work was awarded by the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physics.
1928 Berger measures the electroencephalogram
1913 Superconductivity discovered (Kamerlingh Onnes)

To BioMag home page